Surgical sperm extraction is another method of treating infertility, suitable for cases where it is from the male factor such as being sterile, meaning there is no sperm present in the ejaculate. This condition can result from various causes, such as obstructive azoospermia, congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD), mumps orchitis, or others. In the past, individuals facing such challenges were unable to have biological children of their own unless they used donor sperm. However, with modern technological advancements, it’s now possible to address these issues and help men experiencing these problems have their biological children. This can be achieved through the following methods:
- PESA (Percutaneous Epididymal Sperm Aspiration) is a procedure where a needle is inserted through the skin of the testis into the epididymis to aspirate sperm. Once sperm is located, it will be inserted into only one egg by using a special tool (micromanipulator) and this method is called ICSI (Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection).
- TESE (Testicular Epididymal Sperm Extraction) involves surgically extracting a small piece of testicular tissue and then isolating the sperm within the tissue. The isolated sperm is then used for subsequent ICSI.
- TESA (Testicular Sperm Aspiration) is a procedure where a needle is inserted through the skin of the testis into the testicle to aspirate sperm. The sperm is then used for ICSI.
- MESA (Microsurgical Epididymal Sperm Aspiration) involves microsurgical dissection to locate the epididymis in epididymal tube. A needle is then inserted to aspirate sperm from the epididymis. The sperm is then used for ICSI.